​​As you might be aware, fluency-based instruction and Precision Teaching evolved from more than a decade of incredibly productive, groundbreaking laboratory research by Ogden R. Lindsley. Lindsley brought Skinner's behavior science into the laboratory study of human
behavior, with a commitment to Skinner's measure, rate of response or (as Lindsley preferred to call it) behavior frequency.

This page contains a nearly complete archive of Lindsley's publications and unpublished reports, including those from before to his transition from Harvard Medical School and the Behavior Research Lab at the Metropolitan State Hospital to the University of Kansas. We've assembled these documents here because many of those who practice fluency-based instruction and performance improvement have not had the opportunity to study Lindsley's earlier work, much of which is currently difficult to access.

We also decided to put his publications and presentations related to Precision Teaching here, because the list is so extensive. Rather than combining his work with those who came afterward, we decided to give Ogden a page of his own.

Many of these documents came originally from B.H. Barrett's extensive collection of research papers (Barrett completed a postdoctoral fellowship with Lindsley and Skinner before building her own human behavior laboratory), as well as from my own archive. More recent additions came from Lindsley's collection of publications and reports at Behavior Reseach Company, thanks to the generosity of Nancy Hughes, his long-time life partner.

Azrin, N.H., Lindsley O.R. (1956). The Reinforcement of Cooperation Between Children.  Journal of Abnormality & Social Psychology, 52(1), 100-103.

Humphrey, J. (1982). Ogden Lindsley on Education, An Interview with Ogden Lindsley. The Behavioral Educator, Volume III. Number 3, May 18 1982 Edition. 

Lindsley, O.R. (undated). Intellectual Biography and Mentors WWII Bio. 

Lindsley, O.R. (1956). Operant conditioning methods applied to research in chronic schizophrenia. Psychiatric Research Reports, 5, 118-139.

Lindsley, O.R. (1956). Status Report 5, 9/1/55-5/15/56. Metropolitan State Hospital.

Lindsley, O.R. (1956). Annual Tech. Rpt. 3 - New Techniques of analysis of psychotic behavior & final T.R. for contract N5-ori-07662 9/1/55-11/15/56.

Lindsley, O.R. (1957). Operant behavior during sleep: a measure of depth of sleep. Science, 126(3286), 1290-1291.

Mednick, M.T., Lindsley, O.R. (1958). Some clinical correlates of operant behavior. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 57(1), 13-16.

Lindsley, O.R. (1959). Reduction in rate of vocal psychotic symptoms by differential positive reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 2(269), 269.

Lindsley, O.R. (1960). Characteristics of the behavior of chronic psychotics as revealed by free-operant conditioning methods. Diseases of the Nervous system, Monograph supplement, 21(2) 66-78.

Lindsley, O.R. (1961). Final report.

Lindsley, O.R. (1961). Description of Filtered Voice Key Used to Record Psychotic Symptoms. Behavior Research Laboratory.

Lindsley, O.R., Hobika, J.H., Etsten, B.E., (1961). Operant Behavior During Anesthesia Recovery: a Continuous and Objective Method. Anesthesiology, 22(6), 937-946.

Barrett, B.H., Lindsley, O.R. (1962). Deficits in Acquisition of Operant Discrimination & Differentiation Shown by Institutionalized Retarded Children. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 67(3), 424-436.

Lindsley, O.R. (1962). Operant conditioning methods in diagnosis. Chapter 8. The First Hahnemann Symposium on Psychosomatic Medicine.

Lindsley, O.R. (1962). Behavioral measure of television viewing. The Journal of Advertising Reseach, 2(3), 1-12.

Lindsley, O.R. (1962). Operant conditioning techniques in the measurement of psycho pharmacologic response. The First Hahnemann Symposium on Phychosomatic Medicine, 373-383.

Lindsley, O.R. (1962). Cumulative Records of Progress: 1963-1962. Behavior Research Laboratory.

Lindsley, O.R., Conran, P. (1962). Operant Behavior During EST: A Measure of Depth of Coma. Diseases of the Nevous System, 23(7), 1-4.

Lindsley, O.R. (1963). Direct measurement & functional definition of vocal hallucinatory symptoms. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 136(3), 293-297.

Lindsley, O.R. (1963). Free-Operant Conditioning and Psychotherapy. Current Psychiatric Therapies, 3, 47-56.

Lindsley, O.R. (1963). Experimental analysis of social reinforcement. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 33(4), 624-633.

Lindsley, O.R., Farber, S.M. (1963). Review of control of the mind. Contemporary Psychology, 8, 350-352.

Cohen, D.J., and Lindsley, O. R. (1964). Catalysis of Controlled Leadership in Cooperation by Human Stimulation. J. Child Psychol. Psychiat., Vol. 5, 119-137.  Harvard.

Lindsley, O.R. (1964). Direct measurement & prosthesis of retarded behavior. Journal of Education, 147, 62-8.

Lindsley, O.R. (1964). Geriatric Behavioral Prosthetics. New Thoughts on Old Age, 41-60.

Lindsley, O.R. (1964). Pavlovian conditioning & american psychiatry. Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry Symposium Num. 9, 206-211.

Nathan, P.E., Schneller, P., Lindsley, O.R. (1964). Direct measurement of communication during psychiatric admission interviews. Behavior Research Therory, 2, 49-57.

Lindsley, O.R. (1965). Can deficiency produce specific superiority - the challenge of the idiot savant. Exceptional Children, 31(5) 225-232.

Levesque, P.R., Lindsley, O.R., Etsten, B.E. (1965) Amitriptyline (Elavil): A Sedating Antidepressant with Pressor Activity for Preoperative Medication. Canadian Anesthetists' Society Journal, 12(2) ,129-136.

Lindsley, O. R. (1965). Experimental Analysis of Cooperation and Competition. Harvard Medical School and Metropolitan State Hosptial.

Nathan, P.E., Marland, J., Lindsley, O.R. (1965). Receptive communicaiton in psychiatric nurse supervision. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 12(3), 259-267.

Morgan, B.J., Lindsley, O.R. (1966). Operant preference for stereophonic over monophonic music. Journal of Music Therapy.

Lindsley, O.R. (1968). Operant Behavior Management: Background and Procedures. An unpublished manuscript from the Bureau of Child Research and School of Education, University of Kansas.

Lindsley, O.R. (1968). Pavlovian Consequences. An unpublished manuscript from the Bureau of Child Research and School of Education, University of Kansas.

Lindsley, O.R. (1968). Technical Note: A Reliable Wrist Counter for Recording Behavior Rates. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1(1), 77-78.

Lindsley, O.R. (1968). Theoretical Basis of Behavior Modification. An unpublished Manuscript from the Bureau of Child Research and School of Education, University of Kansas.

Lal, H., Lindsley, O.R. (1968). Therapy of Chronic Constipation in a Young Child by Rearanging Social Contingincies. Behavior Research and Therapy.

Lindsley, O.R. (1969). Direct Behavioral Analysis of Psychotherapy Sessions by Conjugately Programed Closed-Circuit Television. Psychtherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. 6(1), 71-81.

Lindsley, O.R., Haughton, E., and Starlin, C. (1969). Direct Measurement and Prosthesis of Retarded Behavior (revised version).  Manuscript submitted to the Curriculum Bulletin, College of Education, University of Oregon.

Lindsley, O.R. (1969). The Secret Life of William James. William James Unfinished Business, 35-43.

Lindsley, O.R. (1970). Procedures in Common Described by a Common Language.  Behavior Modification in Clinical Psychology, 221-236.

Lindsley, O.R. (1971). From Skinner to Precision Teaching: The Child Knows Best. The Council for Exceptional Children, 2-11.

Lindsley, O.R. (1971). P recision Teaching in Perspective: An Interview with Ogden R. Lindsley. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(3), 114-119.

Lindsley, O.R. (1978). Conjugate Reinforcer Servo Model CR-2S. Behavior Research Company.

Lindsley, O.R. (1979). Rate of Response Futures. The History and Future of Rate of Response, 1-19.

Lindsley, O.R. (1982). Ogden Lindsley on Education. The Behavioral Educator, Vol. III. No. 3. May 18, 1982 Edition. An interview with Ogden Lindsley by John Humphrey, West Virginia University. 

Lindsley, O.R. (1986). In Memoriam; Eric C. Haughton 1934-1985. The Behavior Analyst, 9(2), 241-242.

Lindsley, O.R. (1988). Skinners Impact on Education. An Introduction to the division of Educational Psychology, 1-6.

Lindsley, O.R. (1989). Wrap-Up Address at the 1989 Precision Teaching Conference. 

Lindsley, O.R. (1990). Precision Teaching: by Teachers for Children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22(3), 10-15.

Lindsley, O.R. (1990). Standard Comparison of Effects. Presented at national Society for Performance and Instruction Conference, Toronto, Canada.

Lindsley, O.R. (1990). The Free Operant Yields Both Frequency and Ratio Probabilities. Presented at 16th Annual Conference of Association for Behavior Analysis.

Lindsley, O.R. (1991). Basic and Applied Monitoring Standards. The Relationship between Basic and Applied Behavior Analysis: Where do we Stand and Where Do We Want to Go? 1-6.

​Lindsley, O.R. (1991). Precision Teaching's Unique Legacy from B.F. Skinner. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1(2), 253-266. This article summarizes historical inputs to Precision Teaching from Skinner and some of the key features of current practice and language at the time the article was written.

Lindsley, O.R. (1991). Punishment and Penalties are Necessary. Handout from a presentation at ABA, Atlanta, Georgia.

Lindsley, O.R. (1991). B.F. Skinner (1904-1990): Thank You, Grandpa Fred.  The Journal of Precision Teaching, 1-17.​​

Lindsley, O.R. (1991). Navigating Performance Quality with One Practical Standard Chart. Behavior Research Company.

​Lindsley, O.R. (1992). Precision Teaching: Discoveries and Effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 25(1), 51-57. This summary by the co-founder of Precision Teaching (along with Eric Haughton) describes many of the underlying principles and historical developments leading to fluency-based instructional methods.​

Lindsley, O.R. (1992). References to Standard Celeration Chart Collections, Distributions, Tallies and Tables. Presented at 10th Precision Teaching Conference.

​Lindsley, O.R. (1992). Why Aren't Effective Teaching Tools Widely Adopted? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 21-26.

Lindsley, O.R. (1994). Dangers of Percent and How to Avoid Them. Unpublished workshop handout from Behavior Research Company.

Lindsley, O.R. (1994). How to Count Soft Skill Base-lines from Existing Company Records. Unpublished Workshop Handout from Behavior Research Company.

Lindsley, O.R. (1994). My Early Days of Behavior Analysis with Skinner: Light and Heavy Memories. Behavior Research Company.

Lindsley, O.R. (1995). A Simple and Natural Data System. Presented at NCABA.

Lindsley, O.R. (1995). Effective Education: Progress, Possibilities, the Problem, and the Solution. Unpublished document from NCABA.

Lindsley, O.R. (1995). How to Precisely Pinpoint Performance. Unpublished handout from the Behavior Research Company.

Lindsley, O.R. (1995). Ten Products of Fluency. The Journal of Precision Teaching, 1, 2-11.​

Lindsley, O.R. (1996). ABA 96 Workshop #12-Conducting Fluency Research: ChartStat Tools. 

Lindsley, O.R. (1996). Getting Data From Clients: What You've Tried that Worked. Unpublished Document presented at ABA 96 Panel.

Lindsley, O.R. (1996). In Memoriam Thomas F. Gilbert. The Behavior Analyst, 19(1), 11-18

​Lindsley, O.R. (1996). Is Fluency Free-Operant Response-Response Chaining? The Behavior Analyst, 19(2), 211-224.

​Lindsley, O.R. (1996). The Four Free-Operant Freedoms. The Behavior Analyst, 19(2), 199-210.​

Lindsley, O.R. (1997). Big Number on the Left.

Lindsley, O.R. (1997). Learning Channels Next: Let's Go! Unpublished Keynote Address at the 13th International Precision Teaching Conference.

Lindsley, O.R. (1997). Performance Is Easy To Monitor and Hard to Measure. In R. Kaufman, S. Thiagarajan, & P. MacGillis @ds.), The Guidebook for Performance Improvement: Working with individuals and Organizations (519-559).​​

Lindsley, O.R., (1997). Precise Instructional Design: Guidelines from Precision Teaching. In C.R. Dills and J.J. Romiszowski (Eds) , Instructional Development Paradigms (pp. 537-554) Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.

Lindsley, O.R. (1997). To Track and Project Performance Change you Need Count, Count Time, Change Time, and Standard Change Charts. Presented at 35th Annual Conference of The International Society for Performance Improvement.

Lindsley, O.R. (1998). From Training Evaluation to Performance Tracking. The Handbook of Human Performance Technology, 2, 1-18.

Lindsley, O.R. (1999). Gifts from Precision Teachers to Suzuki Teachers. An unpublished document presented in Symposium at 25th ABA Convention.

Lindsley, O.R. (1999). Our 5 Number Worlds: Measurement Scales Made Clear. Distinguished Service Award Acceptance Opening Event, ABA Conference.

Lindsley, O.R. (1999). Studies in Behavior Therapy and Behavior Research Laboratory. Unpublished document presented at Reno Conference on History of Behavior Therapy.

​Lindsley, O.R. (1999). Celeration and Agility for the 2000's. Keynote address, International Precision Teaching and Standard Celeration Conference, Provo, UT, November 1999. pp. 1-5.

Lindsley, O.R. (2000). Precise Free Operant Fluency and Clicker Treatment of Toddlers with Autism. Unpublished Document from the Symposium introduction, Associative Behavior Analysis Annual Convention.

Lindsley, O.R. (2000). Precision Teaching Free Operants to Head Strong, Fast, and Narrow Focused Toddlers With Autism. Unpublished Luncheon Keynote Address.

Lindsley, O.R. (2000). Standard Celeration Chart Workshop. Unpublished workshop materials.

Lindsley, O.R. (2000). WWII and Undergraduate Bio. Unpublished Autobiography.

Lindsley, O.R. (2001). Engage Autism at Maximum Speed: Stamp Out SLOBS! Unpublished Keynote Address, NYSABA 2001 Conference.

Lindsley, O.R. (2002). Diagramming Learning Streams. Unpublished Document Presented at 15th International Precision Teaching Conference.

Lindsley, O.R. (2002). IPTC 2002 Participant Learning Stream Practices with Og. Unpublished Document Presented at 15th International Precision Teaching Conference.

Lindsley, O.R. (2004). Ogden R. Lindsley (1922-2004): Publications. This is a file containing all known publications of Ogden Lindsley, the founder of Precision Teaching and inventor of the Standard Celeration Chart. References include basic laboratory research prior to development of Precision Teaching.