This page includes pubished chapters and articles that may or may not still be available from original sources. We provide them here for the personal use of scholars, students, and others interested in behavioral fluency and related topics.​

Ayers, S., Potter, R., McDearmon, J. (1975) Using Reinforcement Therapy and Precision Teaching Techniques with Adult Aphasics. In J. Behav. Ther. and Exp. Psychiat. Vol 6, pp. 301-305. Pergamon Press. This paper describes a treatment procedure combining reinforcement therapy with precision teaching techniques, applied to four adult aphasics. 

Barrett, B. H. (1968). Behavioral Individuality in Four Cultural-Famiilially Retarded Brothers. Behavioral Research and Therapy, Vol. 7, pp. 79-91​

Barrett, B. H. (1977). Behavior Analysis. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Vol. 9.

Barrett, B. H. (1979). ​​​ Communitization and the measured message of normal behavior. In R. York & E. Edgar (Eds), Teaching the Severely Handicapped, Vol 4. Columbus, OH: Special Press, 301-318. ​​​​​​​​​​ This classic paper is no longer widely available and we're happy to be able to include it here. The late Beatrice Barrett was one of the most articulate advocates of frequency-based instruction and the application of behavior science in education. This chapter presents a data set that has been reprinted and presented hundreds of times since, showing how count per minute measures distinguish among levels of competence, whereas percent correct cannot.

Barrett, B. H., Beck, R., Binder, C., et. al (1991). The right to effective education. The Behavior Analyst, 14, 79-82. We recommend this paper to every educational professional, parent, and anyone else who wants to know about the things research says that education should provide. It is a thorough and still-relevant review of what we know from research that should be included in any educational program, including measurement of and methods for building fluency.

Barrett, B. H., Johnston, J. M., and Pennypacker, H. S. (1986).   Behavior: Its Units, Dimensions and Measurement.  In R.O. Nelson & S.C. Hayes (Eds.), Conceptual foundations of behavioral assesment (pp. 156-200)/ New York: Guilford.

Binder, C. (1987, September). Computing "fluency" and productivity. Managing End-User Computing, 4-5. This one-pager succinctly describes the elements of a learning strategy for building fluent use of computers.

Binder, C. (1988). Precision teaching: Measuring and attaining exemplary academic achievement. Youth Policy Journal, 10(7), 12-15. An old article with a succinct description of Precision Teaching, fluency-based education for children.

Binder, C. (1990). Precision teaching and curriculum based measurement. Journal of Precision Teaching, 7(2), 33-35. Fairly esoteric, for teachers, but might also interest the curious layperson.

Binder, C. (1990, September). Closing the confidence gap. Training, 49-56. Fluency is fun, produces confidence, and brings on a whole host of positive feelings and affect. It feels good to truly "master" and apply any skill or body of knowledge.

Binder, C. (1990). Efforts to Promote Measurably Superior Instructional Methods in Schools.  Performance & Instruction, October 1990, Vol 29, No 9. National Society for Performance and Instruction. 

Binder, C., (1991). Marketing Measurably Effective Instructional Methods. Journal of Behavioral Education, Vol 1, No. 3, 1991, pages 317-328.

Binder, C. (1993, October). Behavioral fluency: A new paradigm. Educational Technology, 8-14. Summary of principles and key research supporting fluency-based instruction, including references to early studies in verbal learning and other traditional areas of experimental psychology.

Binder, C. (1994). Measurably Superior Instructional Methods: Do We Need Sales and Marketing? Chapter 3 from Behavior Analysis in Education: Focus on Measurably Superior Instruction. By editors Garnder, R., Sainato, D.M., Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., Heward, W.L., Eshleman, J., and Grossi, T. A.  Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. 

Binder, C. (1996). Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm. The Behavior Analyst, 19(2), 163-197. A longer and more academic article about the origins and principles underlying fluency-based instruction. Almost 20 years later it continues to be assigned to students in education, instructional design, behavior analysis, and performance improvement. ​​

Binder, C. (1999). Fluency Development. Intervention Resource Guide: 50 Performance Improvement Tools. Danny G. Langdo,  Kathleen S. Whiteside, and Monica M. McKenna, eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer, 1999. 

Binder, C. (2001). Measurement: A few important ideas. Performance Improvement, 40(3), 20-28. While this article is not focused on fluency per se, it provides some background about the measurement principles and tools used in Precision Teaching and standard celeration charting, the methodology that has yielded most of what we currently know about fluency-based instruction.

Binder, C. (2003a, April). Doesn't everybody need fluency? Performance Improvement, 42(3), 14-20. This article lays out the view that we're all trapped in the percentage correct "box" because of our educational histories since childhood, and that we can't get beyond mediocrity to produce true mastery without measuring the time dimension. "It's the measurement, stupid!" is another rude title for this argument. The article also contains a sort of research travelogue and previews key points from Binder's upcoming book called Everybody Needs Fluency!

Binder, C. (2003). Q & A Building Fluency. TRAINING, July/August 2003 issue. Interview of  Dr. Carl Binder.

Binder, C. (2004). In response: A refocus on response-rate measurement: Comment on Doughty, Chase, and O'Shields (2004). The Behavior Analyst, 27(2), 281-286. This paper was written in response to a review of rate-building research by Doughty, et al, in which the authors introduced errors into the Precision Teaching literature and recommended research designs without explicitly mentioning certain essential measurement components. We have not included the Doughty, et al article on this web site in the absence of permission to do so, but suggest readers request a copy of their article by writing Shannon S. Doughty, the first author, at

Binder, C. (2005). Learning, teaching, and an evolutionary imperative. The American Psychological Association Division 25 Recorder, 38 (1), 10-12. A summary of remarks made by Carl Binder upon receiving the Fred S. Keller Award for Contributions to Behavioral Education. 

Binder, C. (2007). Memories and Remembering. aimHomeschool Magazine pages 8-10. 

Binder, C., & Bloom, C. (1989). Fluent Product Knowledge: Application in the Financial Services Industry. Performance and Instruction, 28(2), 17-21. This paper represents possibly the first documented repeated successes of fluency-based methods in the corporate world – in sales knowledge training for commercial and consumer banking. It launched a company, Product Knowledge Systems, Inc., which enabled sales forces in markets that demand consultative selling to know what they're talking about. 

Binder, C., Haughton, E., & Van Eyk, D. (1990). Increasing endurance by building fluency: Precision teaching attention span. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22(3), 24-27. A description of early research with kids linking so-called "attention deficits " with a lack of fluency.

Binder, C., & Sweeney, L. (2002). Building fluent performance in a customer call center. Performance Improvement, 41(2), 29-37. A huge success story for fluencybased methods in the corporate environment. Fluency-based training and coaching helped ramp up performance to 60% better than the call center benchmark within two weeks after new hire training.

Binder, C., Van Patten, J., and Husted, S.,   Mastering Product Knowledge: There is a Better Way.  Lending For The Commercial Banker, Summer 1981 Training Issues

Binder, C., Watkins, C.L., (1989). Promoting Effective Instructional Medthods: Solutions to America's Educational Crisis. This article updates separate articles by each author that appeared in the July/August 1988 issue of Youth Policy.

Binder, C., & Watkins, C. L. (1990). Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction: Measurably Superior Instructional Technology in Schools. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 3(4), 74-96. A good summary of two evidence-based methodologies that should be used in all schools today. For presentation by Dr. Binder from this article, click here. 

Binder, C., & Watkins, C., (2013).  Article Update: Precision Teaching and Direct Instruction-Measurably Superior Instructional Technologies in Schools. Performance Quarterly. Volume 26, Number 2. Pages 96-115.  

Bucklin, B.R., Dickinson, A.M., and Brethower, D. M. (2000). A comparison of the effects of fluency training and accuracy training on application and retention. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 13(3), 140-163. A good example of basic fluency research, and suggestions for more research if you're looking for a Master's or Doctoral level research topic.

Calkin, A.B., (1981). One Minute Timing Improves Inners. Journal of Precision Teaching, Volume II, Number 3, Fall. 

Calkin, A.B. (2005). Precision teaching: The standard celeration charts. The Behavior Analyst Today, 6 (4), 207-213. 

Carbone, V. J., (1987). Curriculum-Based Assessment: More Than an Educational Fad. Information Bulletin. Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center.Des Moines, Iowa. May, 1987 issue. 

Cohen, M. A., and Martin, G. L. (1971)  Applying Precision Teaching to Academic Assessment. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(3), 147-150.

Datchuk, S.M., Kubina Jr., R.M. A Writing Intervention to Teach Simple Sentences and Descriptive Paragraphs to Adolescents Education and Treatment of Children Vol. 40, No. 3, 2017.

Duncan, A. D. (1971). The View from the Inner Eye: Personal Management of Inner and Outer Behaviors.  TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(3), 152-156.

Edwards, J.S., Direct Measurement of the Ways Children Know Language and Numbers. The Influence of Measurement Procedures on Experimental Results, pp. 189-204.

Epstein, R., Medalie, S.D., (1983). The Spontaneous Use Of A Tool By A Pigeon. Behavior Analysis Letters, E 241-247.

Epstein, R., Skinner, B.F., (1981).  The Spontaneous Use of Memoranda by Pigeons.   Behavior Analysis Letters, 1. pages 241-246

Ericsson, A., The Importance of Practice, Practice...and More Practice.  Bottom Line/Personal article interview of Anders Ericsson, Ph.D. of Florida State University.  

Ericsson, K.A., Krampe, R. T., Tesch-Romer, C., (1993). The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance. Psychological Review, 1993. Volume 100, No. 3. 363-406. 

Ericsson, K.A., Charness, N., (1994). Expert Performance, Its Structure and Acquisition. American Psychologist, August 1994. Vol 49, No. 8. 725-747.

Ericsson K.A., (2002). Attaining Excellence Through Deliberate Practice: Insights From the Study of Expert Performance. In M. Ferrai (Ed.) The Educational Psychology series. pp. 21-55. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. 

Fisher, S. L. (1968). Let's Go Eat Worms!  Kansas City, Brennan Printing Company.

Fox, E.J., and Ghezzi, P.M. (2003). Effects of computer-based fluency training on concept formation. Journal of Behavioral Education, 12(1), 1-21. This study, while suffering from a variety of design flaws, represents an important effort to subject instructional methods using response rate mastery criteria to experimental analysis. Future studies would benefit from within-subject control procedures, a larger set of material to be learned, and possibly higher response rate criteria.

Freschi, D. F., (1973). Where We Are. Where We Are Going. How We're Getting There. TEACHING  Exceptional Children. pages 89-97. David Freschi is Assistant Director of Benhaven, a private school for autistic and neurologically impaired children. 

Gangé, R. M. (1968). Contributions of Learning to Human Development.  37-60. University of California, Berkeley.

Galloway, C., and Galloway, K. C. (1971). Parent Classes in Precise Behavior Management. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(3), 120-128.

Grabavac, D.M., Goldwater, B.C., Acker L.E., (1996). Training Fluency On Choice Reaction Time Tasks: Does Response Speed Generalize To Functionally Equivalent Stimuli? Poster presented at the Association for Behavior Analysis 22nd Annual Convention, May, 1996 San Francisco, CA. 

Grabavac, D.M., Goldwater, B.C., Acher, L.E., (1996). A Laboratory Study Of Fluency Training: Evaluating Effects Of Operant Contingencies On Choice Reaction Time.  ​Poster presented at the Association for Behavior Analysis 22nd Annual Convention, May 1996, San Francisco, CA. 

Glaser, R. (1976). Components of a Psychological of Instruction: Toward a Science of Design. Review of Educational Research, 46(1), 1-24. University of Pittsburg.

Gilbert, T. F. (1958). Fundamental Dimensional Properties of the Operant. University of Georgia.

Haring, N.G., Hayden, A. Measures of Classroom Performance.​  Chapter written by Marilyn A. Cohen, N. Dale Gentry, William J. Hulten, Grant L. Martin. Taken from The Improvement of Instruction. Seattle: Special Child Publications, 1972 

Haring, N.G., Liberty, K.A. and White, O.R., (1980). Rules for Data-Based Strategy Decisions in Instructional Programs, Current Research and Instructional Implications. in W. Sailor, B. Wilcox and L. Brown (Eds.), Methods of Instruction for Severely Hadicapped Students pp. 159-192. Baltimore, MD: brookes. 

Haughton, E. (1971). Great Gains from Small Starts. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(3), 141-146.

Haughton, E. (1972). Aims – growing and sharing. In Jordan, J.B., and Robbins, L.S. (Eds.). Let's Try Doing Something Else Kind of Thing: Behavioral Principles and the Exceptional Child. A report from the Invisible College Conference on Application of Behavioral Principles in Exceptional Child Education, March, 1971. Arlington, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children, 20-39. This inspiring chapter is what started many of us second-generation Precision Teachers on the path toward fluency-based instruction. Eric Haughton summarized the work that he and his  associates (notably, Clay Starlin) had done leading to the conclusion that "aims" or count per minute fluency standards should serve as mastery criteria or goals for instruction and practice. In many respects, this chapter says most of what over 30 years later we have merely refined and expanded. 

Haughton, E. (1974). Myriad Counter (or, beads that aren't for counting). Teaching Exceptional Children, 204-209.

Haughton, E. (1975) Pinpointing aids social interaction. Special Education in Canada, Volume 50, No. 2, 1975

Husband, R. W.   Semi-Logarithmic Versus Linear Plotting Of Learning Curves. Journal of Educational Psychology, pp. 72-75.

Imbriglio, S., PT (1992) Huntington's Disease at Mid-Stage. Clinical Management pp. 62-72.

Jazrawi, L., (2017). E ditorial Commentary: The Grapefruit: So Much More Than an Annoying Breakfast Item- A Valuable Tool for Arthroscopic Simulation Training.  Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery, Vol 33, No 8 (August), 2017: pp 1573-1574

Johnson, K.R., and Layng, T.V.J. (1992). Breaking the structuralist barrier: Literacy and numeracy with fluency. American Psychologist, 47(11), 1475-1490. This article was the first widely distributed description of the Morningside Model of Generative Instruction, an approach to instruction based on Learning Sciences research and a foundation of fluency development. A classic in the field, well worth reading. 

Johnson, K.R., and Layng, T.V. J. (1994). The Morningside Model of generative instruction.  In Gardner, R., Sainato, D.M., Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., Heward, W.L., Eshleman, J.W., and Grossi, T. (Eds.). Behavior Analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction.  Belmont, CA: Brooks-Cole, 173-197.

Johnson, K.R., and Street, E.M. (2004). The Morningside Model of generative instruction: What it means to leave no child behind. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies. This book describes the rationale and components of the Morningside Model, a powerful integration of research-based methods built on a foundation of procedures for building fluent skills and knowledge. This link takes you to Amazon where you can purchase the book.

Koenig, C. (1971). The Behavior Bank: A System for Sharing Precise Information. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(3), 157.

Kubina, R.M., Cooper, J.O. (2000). Changing Learning Channels: An Efficient Strategy to Facilitate Instruction and Learning. Intervention in School and Clinic. Vol. 35, No. 3, January 2000. pp. 161-166.  

Kubina, R., & Morrison R. (2000). Fluency in education. Behavior and Social Issues, 10, 83-99. A good plain English discussion of fluency in education, published by a great not-for-profit organization that supports the application of behavior science to practical problems.

Kunzelmann, H. P. (1980). Rapid Exam For Early Referral.

Kunzelmann, H., Burke, L., Koenig, C., Wood, S. Goals for Basic Math Skill Proficiency (The Pendulum Swings).

Kunzelmann, H. P., Magliocca, L. A., Crew, J. L., Rinaldi, R. T. (1977). Early Identification of Handicapped Children through a Frequency Sampling Technique.

Kunzelmann, H., Koenig, C. Developing An Early Childhood Screening Device. Final Report to Superintendent of Public Instruction Division of Special Services, Early Education for the Handicapped, for Federal Grant Award. By International Management Systems, Inc. November 30, 1978. 
This grant report describes the process that Harold Kunzelmann, Carl Koenig and their colleagues followed to create their early childhood screening tool. While it is unpublished, we put it here in the reference list near publications by Kunzelmann, et al, that were involved in the same body of work. During the 1970's Harold, Carl and Ogden Lindsley formed International Management systems (IMS), with the intention of eventually moving into business consulting. However, they found a rich vein of interest for their screening and assesment methodologies, so that IMS devoted itself to this type of project. 

LaBerge, D., & Samuels, J. (1974). Toward a Theory of Automatic Information Processing in Reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293-323.

Levy, M.I., Pryor, K.W., McKeon, T.R. (2016) Is Teaching Simple Surgical Skills Using an Operant Learning Program More Effective Than Teaching by Demonstration? Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. A publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons. Originally published online 2015. The final publication is available at 

Levy, I.M., Fornari, E.D., Schulz, J.F., Pryor, K.W., McKeon, T.R., & Kuhn, L.J. (2016). A curriculum for teaching the foundation tool skills to first-year orthopaedic surgery residents. Montefiore Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine and Surgery, 1(1), 4-19. Here’s an exciting example of fluency that combines tag teaching and neurosurgery.

MacKay, D. G., (1982). The Problems of Flexibility, Fluency, and Speed Accuracy Trade-Off in Skilled Behavior. Psychological Review 1982, Volume 89, No. 5, 483-506. 

Maloney, M. (1982). Teaching The Daily Standard Behavior Chart: A Direct Instruction Approximation. Journal of Precision Teaching, Volume II, Number 4, Winter, 1982.

Maloney, M., Desjardins, A., Broad, P., (1990). Teach Your Children Well. Journal of Precision Teaching. 7(2), pages 36-58.

Marston, D., (1988). Measuring Progress on IEPs: A Comparasion of Graphing Approaches. Exceptional Children. Volume 55, No. 1. pp. 38-44. 

McConnell, L. (1971). "And these things write we unto you that your joy may be full": A Letter. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(3), 158.

McDowell, C., and Kennan,M. (2001). Developing fluency and endurance in a child diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(3), 345-348. The results reported in this article confirm that building fluency can help to improve attention span and endurance in students who otherwise experience difficulty staying on task.

McGreevy, P. (1983). Teaching and Learning in Plain English: Second Edition. This book is a superb introduction to Precision Teaching and standard celeration charting methods by a long-time master of the methodology, especially applied with children and special education populations. You may purchase the book by clicking on this link.

Merbitz, C. (1985, July). Wheelchair Push-ups: Measuring Pressure Relief Frequency. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabilitation, Vol. 66, 433-438.

Merbitz, C. (1996). Frequency measures of behavior for assistive technology and rehabilitation. Assistive Technology, 8(2), 121-130.

Merbitz, C., Miller, T., Hansen, N. (2003). Cueing and logical problem solving in brain trauma rehabilitation: Frequency patterns in clinician and patient behaviors. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 4(1&2), 31-43.

Mira, M. (1977). Tracking the Motor Behavior Development of Multihandicapped Infants. Mental Retardation, 15(3), 32-37. University of Kansas Medical Center. 

Neely, M.D., Johnson, K. (2004). Honoring Ogden R. Lindsley, 1922-2004. The ABA Newsletter, 28(1), 34-42.

Nosik, M. R., Williams, W. L., Binder, C., Carr, J. E. (2017). Methodological refinements in the behavior-analytic study of distraction: A preliminary investigation. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 18(1), 71-83.

Omega Performance Corporation (1988). Building Product Fluency at Shawmut National Corporation.  Omega's Building Fee Income Graduates Register Dramatic Increase in Speed and Accuracy of Product Recall. 

Pennypacker, H.S. How I spent my Christmas vacation.  ​In R. Ulrich, T. Stachnik, and W. Mabry (Eds.), Control of Human Behavior. Volume Three. New York: Scott Foresman, 1973, 3-18. 

Pennypacker, H.S., Binder, C., Triage for American Education. Administrative Radiology pages 19-23, 25.

Pennypacker, H.S., Ellis, J., Precision Teaching: An Alternative to the Information Gap.  Reprinted from People Watching, Volume1, Number 2. Behavioral Publications, Inc. Morningside Heights, New York, New York.

Resnick, L. B., Wang, M. C., Kaplan, J. (1973). Task Analysis in Curriculum Design: A Hierarchically Sequenced Introductory Mathematics Curriculum. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6(4), 697-710. From the University of Pittsburgh and Columbia University.

Roberts, M., Bondy, A., Mira, M., Cairns, G. Continuous Tracking of Behavioral Development in Infants. University of Kansas Medical Center.

Shaffer, L.H., (1982). Rhythm and Timing in Skill. Psychological Review. Volume 89, Number 2, March 1982 pages 109-122.

Snyder, G (1992). Training to Fluency, A Real Return on Investment.  Performance Management Magazine, 10, 16-22.  (featuring an interview with Dr. Carl Binder).

Starlin, A., (1971). Sharing a Message about Curriculum with My Teacher Friends . Let's Try Doing Something Else Kind of Thing: Behavioral Principles and the Exceptional Child. A report from the Invisible College Conference on Application of Behaviorial Principples in Exceptional Child.  pages 13-19.

Starlin, C.M. (1971).  Evaluating progress towards reading proficiency.   In B. Bateman (Ed.), Learning Disorders, Vol 4. Seattle, WA: Special Child Publications. 390-465.

Starlin, C. (1971). Peers and Precision.  TEACHING Exceptional Children, 3(3), 129-132.

Starlin, C.M. (1979, December). Evaluating and Teaching Reading to "Irregular" Kids. Iowa Perspective, 1-10. This is a classic article, hard to find anywhere else unless you happen to have a paper copy. It lays out the basics of a Precision Teaching approach to reading. While there are more strategies and pinpoints that might be relevant in some cases (e.g., focus on word attack skills, Elizabeth Haughton's fluency development methods for phonological coding), this is definitely a great place to start.

Stevens, S.S., (1958). Measurement and Man. Reprinted from SCIENCE, February 21, 1958, Vol. 127, No. 3295, pp. 383-389. 

Vargas, J. S., (1988). Evaluation of Educational Effectiveness. Youth Policy. July/August 1988, Vol. 10, No. 7. 

 Vargas, J.S. (2003). Precision Teaching and Skinner’s Legacy. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 4(1-2). A review of the power and breadth of precision teaching through looking at 5 articles.

Walkerman, B. J., (1998). Math Education Should Fuse Old, New Techniques. Readers Forum, The Burlington Free Press. June 5, 1998. Page 13A. 

White, O.R. (1971). A Glossary of Behavioral Terminology. Research Press Company. This classic book, by Precision Teaching thought leader, Dr. Owen White, is out of print. We were able to obtain a clean copy of the book from Peggy White, Owen's widow, and are happy to make it availbable. It contains some arcane terminology, and some that has been replaced over the years. But it is a remarkably complete and accurate listing of techical terms that some might find useful, and is historically important. White was a scholar, committed to precision and to communicationg the elements of behavior science. There might be a few terms missing that one could find in contemporary presentations or publication, e.g., establishing operation or motivationg operation. And one might disagree with some of the definitions, based on one's current use, e.g., his descrioption of performance. But overall it is a remarkable piece of work, with a great deal of helpful reference material all in one place. 

Young, J. R. (1972). Precision Teaching I: A Course in Basic Procedures. Brigham Young University.

Zemke, R. (2003, July/August). Training Today Q&A: Building Fluency. Training Magazine, 14. This one-pager by our old late friend, Ron Zemke (Senior Editor at Training Magazine for years and a great performance improvement professional), is a liberally edited summary of an interview he conducted with Carl Binder so that he could present fluency-based training and coaching in a simple, summary way. A pretty good summary for business decisionmakers.

Zernike, K., (1996). Abuses Seen in Requests for Untimed SAT Tests. 'Disabled' Exemption Can Help Boost Score. The Boston Globe, Tuesday, January 16, 1996